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MS16-137: LSASS Remote Memory Corruption Advisory

Written By Fouls Code on Δευτέρα, 6 Φεβρουαρίου 2017 | Φεβρουαρίου 06, 2017

Title: LSASS SMB NTLM Exchange Remote Memory Corruption
Version: 1.0
Issue type: Null Pointer Dereference
Authentication: Pre-Authenticated
Affected vendor: Microsoft
Release date: 8/11/2016
Discovered by: Laurent Gaffié
Advisory by: Laurent Gaffié
Issue status: Patch available
Affected versions: Windows: XP/Server 2003, Vista, 7, 2008R2, Server 2012R2, 10.
=================================================

A vulnerability in Windows Local Security Authority Subsystem Service (LSASS) was found on Windows OS versions ranging from Windows XP through to Windows 10. This vulnerability allows an attacker to remotely crash the LSASS.EXE process of an affected workstation with no user interaction.
Successful remote exploitation of this issue will result in a reboot of the target machine. Local privilege escalation should also be considered likely.
Microsoft acknowledged the vulnerability and has published an advisory and a patch, resolving this issue.


Technical details
-----------------

This vulnerability affects both LSASS client and server and can be triggered remotely via SMBv1 and SMBv2, during the NTLM message 3 (Authenticate) message. Incoming NTLM messages via SMB are using ASN1 and DER encoding, the first ASN length field can be set to unsigned int by using 0x84.
This allows an attacker to remotely allocate a huge chunk of memory, for a message never larger than 20000 chars. The secondary trigger is to set any string fields (User, Domain, session Key, MIC, etc) with a long string (80-140 chars), leading LSASS.exe to crash.

eax=00000000 ebx=000e3e04 ecx=fffffff8 edx=fffffffc esi=000e3e00 edi=00000004
eip=7c84cca2 esp=00aaf9ac ebp=00aaf9d4 iopl=0 nv up ei pl nz ac po cy
cs=001b ss=0023 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=003b gs=0000 efl=00010213
ntdll!RtlpWaitOnCriticalSection+0xdf:
7c84cca2 ff4014 inc dword ptr [eax+14h] ds:0023:00000014=????????

STACK_TEXT:
00aaf9d4 7c83cfd7 00000b3c 00000004 00000000 ntdll!RtlpWaitOnCriticalSection+0xdf
00aaf9f4 4ab82f4a 000e3e00 00aafbec 00000000 ntdll!RtlEnterCriticalSection+0xa8 <-- a="" br="" is="" null="" pointer="" used="" with="">00aafa18 4ab82765 000e3de8 ffffffff 00000001 lsasrv!NegpBuildMechListFromCreds+0x25 <-- a="" br="" creds.="" null="" uses="">00aafbfc 4abc8fbb 00000001 00aafe40 000e3de8 lsasrv!NegBuildRequestToken+0xd9
00aafc34 4abca13f 000e3de8 00120111 00000010 lsasrv!NegGenerateServerRequest+0x2a
00aafc98 4ab85edb 000e3de8 00000000 00aafe40 lsasrv!NegAcceptLsaModeContext+0x344
00aafd0c 4ab860c8 00d5f900 00d5f908 00aafe40 lsasrv!WLsaAcceptContext+0x139
00aafe84 4ab7ae7b 00d5f8d8 005ccaf0 00599048 lsasrv!LpcAcceptContext+0x13b
00aafe9c 4ab7ad7e 00d5f8d8 4ac22738 00d5a158 lsasrv!DispatchAPI+0x46
00aaff54 4ab7a7c9 00d5f8d8 00aaff9c 77e5baf1 lsasrv!LpcHandler+0x1fe
00aaff78 4ab8f448 00598ce8 00000000 00000000 lsasrv!SpmPoolThreadBase+0xb9
00aaffb8 77e6484f 0059ade8 00000000 00000000 lsasrv!LsapThreadBase+0x91
00aaffec 00000000 4ab8f3f1 0059ade8 00000000 kernel32!BaseThreadStart+0x34

dt ntdll!_RTL_CRITICAL_SECTION
+0x000 DebugInfo : Ptr32 _RTL_CRITICAL_SECTION_DEBUG
+0x004 LockCount : Int4B
+0x008 RecursionCount : Int4B
+0x00c OwningThread : Ptr32 Void
+0x010 LockSemaphore : Ptr32 Void
+0x014 SpinCount : Uint4B

- LSASS NegpBuildMechListFromCreds sends a null pointer "creds" to NTDLL RtlEnterCriticalSection.
- RtlEnterCriticalSection is used with a null pointer, which triggers the crash.

Impact
------

Successful attempts will result in a remote system crash and possibly local privilege escalation.

Affected products
-----------------

Windows:
- XP
- Server 2003
- 7
- 8
- 2008
- 2012
- 10

Proof of concept
----------------

A proof of concept is available at the following URL:
https://github.com/lgandx/PoC/tree/master/LSASS
This proof of concept is fully automated and includes non-vulnerable detection.

Solution
--------

Install the corresponding MS patch.
More details:
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/security/ms16-137.aspx

Response timeline
-----------------

* 17/09/2016 - Vendor notified, proof of concept sent.
* 28/09/2016 - Issue confirmed by MSRC
* 14/10/2016 - Vendor says he plan to release a patch in November, that is 1 month in advance of the scheduled 3 month.
* 08/11/2016 - Vendor release MS16-137.
* 08/11/2016 - This advisory released.

References
----------
* https://twitter.com/PythonResponder
* https://github.com/lgandx/Responder




Responder.py

LLMNR/NBT-NS/mDNS Poisoner

Author: Laurent Gaffie https://g-laurent.blogspot.com
Intro

Responder an LLMNR, NBT-NS and MDNS poisoner. It will answer to specific NBT-NS (NetBIOS Name Service) queries based on their name suffix (see: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/163409). By default, the tool will only answer to File Server Service request, which is for SMB.

The concept behind this is to target our answers, and be stealthier on the network. This also helps to ensure that we don't break legitimate NBT-NS behavior. You can set the -r option via command line if you want to answer to the Workstation Service request name suffix.

Features
Built-in SMB Auth server.

Supports NTLMv1, NTLMv2 hashes with Extended Security NTLMSSP by default. Successfully tested from Windows 95 to Server 2012 RC, Samba and Mac OSX Lion. Clear text password is supported for NT4, and LM hashing downgrade when the --lm option is set. SMBv2 has also been implemented and is supported by default.
Built-in MSSQL Auth server.

In order to redirect SQL Authentication to this tool, you will need to set the option -r (NBT-NS queries for SQL Server lookup are using the Workstation Service name suffix) for systems older than windows Vista (LLMNR will be used for Vista and higher). This server supports NTLMv1, LMv2 hashes. This functionality was successfully tested on Windows SQL Server 2005 & 2008.
Built-in HTTP Auth server.

In order to redirect HTTP Authentication to this tool, you will need to set the option -r for Windows version older than Vista (NBT-NS queries for HTTP server lookup are sent using the Workstation Service name suffix). For Vista and higher, LLMNR will be used. This server supports NTLMv1, NTLMv2 hashes and Basic Authentication. This server was successfully tested on IE 6 to IE 10, Firefox, Chrome, Safari.

Note: This module also works for WebDav NTLM authentication issued from Windows WebDav clients (WebClient). You can now send your custom files to a victim.
Built-in HTTPS Auth server.

Same as above. The folder certs/ contains 2 default keys, including a dummy private key. This is intentional, the purpose is to have Responder working out of the box. A script was added in case you need to generate your own self signed key pair.
Built-in LDAP Auth server.

In order to redirect LDAP Authentication to this tool, you will need to set the option -r for Windows version older than Vista (NBT-NS queries for HTTP server lookup are sent using the Workstation Service name suffix). For Vista and higher, LLMNR will be used. This server supports NTLMSSP hashes and Simple Authentication (clear text authentication). This server was successfully tested on Windows Support tool "ldp" and LdapAdmin.
Built-in FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP Auth servers.

This modules will collect clear text credentials.
Built-in DNS server.

This server will answer type A queries. This is really handy when it's combined with ARP spoofing.
Built-in WPAD Proxy Server.
This module will capture all HTTP requests from anyone launching Internet Explorer on the network if they have "Auto-detect settings" enabled. This module is highly effective. You can configure your custom PAC script in Responder.conf and inject HTML into the server's responses. See Responder.conf.
Browser Listener

This module allows to find the PDC in stealth mode.
Fingerprinting

When the option -f is used, Responder will fingerprint every host who issued an LLMNR/NBT-NS query. All capture modules still work while in fingerprint mode.


Icmp Redirect

python tools/Icmp-Redirect.py

For MITM on Windows XP/2003 and earlier Domain members. This attack combined with the DNS module is pretty effective.


Rogue DHCP

python tools/DHCP.py

DHCP Inform Spoofing. Allows you to let the real DHCP Server issue IP addresses, and then send a DHCP Inform answer to set your IP address as a primary DNS server, and your own WPAD URL.
Analyze mode.

This module allows you to see NBT-NS, BROWSER, LLMNR, DNS requests on the network without poisoning any responses. Also, you can map domains, MSSQL servers, workstations passively, see if ICMP Redirects attacks are plausible on your subnet.
Hashes

All hashes are printed to stdout and dumped in an unique file John Jumbo compliant, using this format:(MODULE_NAME)-(HASH_TYPE)-(CLIENT_IP).txt


Log files are located in the "logs/" folder. Hashes will be logged and printed only once per user per hash type, unless you are using the Verbose mode (-v).
Responder will logs all its activity to Responder-Session.log
Analyze mode will be logged to Analyze-Session.log
Poisoning will be logged to Poisoners-Session.log

Additionally, all captured hashed are logged into an SQLite database which you can configure in Responder.conf
Considerations


This tool listens on several ports: UDP 137, UDP 138, UDP 53, UDP/TCP 389,TCP 1433, TCP 80, TCP 139, TCP 445, TCP 21, TCP 3141,TCP 25, TCP 110, TCP 587, TCP 3128 and Multicast UDP 5553.


If you run Samba on your system, stop smbd and nmbd and all other services listening on these ports.


For Ubuntu users:

Edit this file /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf and comment the line: dns=dnsmasq. Then kill dnsmasq with this command (as root): killall dnsmasq -9


Any rogue server can be turned off in Responder.conf.


This tool is not meant to work on Windows.


For OSX, please note: Responder must be launched with an IP address for the -i flag (e.g. -i YOUR_IP_ADDR). There is no native support in OSX for custom interface binding. Using -i en1 will not work. Also to run Responder with the best experience, run the following as root:

launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.Kerberos.kdc.plist

launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.mDNSResponder.plist

launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.smbd.plist

launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.netbiosd.plist
Usage

First of all, please take a look at Responder.conf and tweak it for your needs.

Running the tool:./Responder.py [options]


Typical Usage Example:./Responder.py -I eth0 -rPv


Options: --version show program's version number and exit. -h, --help show this help message and exit. -A, --analyze Analyze mode. This option allows you to see NBT-NS, BROWSER, LLMNR requests without responding. -I eth0, --interface=eth0 Network interface to use. -i 10.0.0.21, --ip=10.0.0.21 Local IP to use (only for OSX) -e 10.0.0.22, --externalip=10.0.0.22 Poison all requests with another IP address than Responder's one. -b, --basic Return a Basic HTTP authentication. Default: NTLM -r, --wredir Enable answers for netbios wredir suffix queries. Answering to wredir will likely break stuff on the network. Default: Off -d, --NBTNSdomain Enable answers for netbios domain suffix queries. Answering to domain suffixes will likely break stuff on the network. Default: Off -f, --fingerprint This option allows you to fingerprint a host that issued an NBT-NS or LLMNR query. -w, --wpad Start the WPAD rogue proxy server. Default value is Off -u UPSTREAM_PROXY, --upstream-proxy=UPSTREAM_PROXY Upstream HTTP proxy used by the rogue WPAD Proxy for outgoing requests (format: host:port) -F, --ForceWpadAuth Force NTLM/Basic authentication on wpad.dat file retrieval. This may cause a login prompt. Default: Off -P, --ProxyAuth Force NTLM (transparently)/Basic (prompt) authentication for the proxy. WPAD doesn't need to be ON. This option is highly effective when combined with -r. Default: Off --lm Force LM hashing downgrade for Windows XP/2003 and earlier. Default: Off -v, --verbose Increase verbosity.

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